liveonearth (liveonearth) wrote,

Bot Med III Midterm Review

Fall 2008
Midterm Study Guide

The Midterm is to cover Urinary, Cardiovascular, and Dermatologic Herbs

Be familiar with the ACTIONS the primary urinary herbs:
Which are the BEST antimicrobials?
Arctostaphylos uva ursi, Chimaphila umbellata (pipsissewa), Berberis

The BEST Antispasmodics?
Piper methysticum (kava), Lobelia, Dioscorrea (best for GI)

The BEST trophorestoratives?
Serenoa repens (saw palmetto), Lepidum (maca), Eupatorium

The BEST demulcents?
Althea sp (marshmallow), Zea mays (corn silk), Verbascum (mullein), Symphytum (comfrey) (I just learned that allantoin is also present in cow urine)

Would you be able to recognize a formula for UTI as being different from a formula for acute renal colic?
UTI formula: mostly antimicrobial, possibly Hydrastis, definitely some demulcents/mucus membrane comfort, Arctium (alteratives if repeat infx)
Colic formula: antispasmodic (kava), demulcent and antimicrobial combined

Would you be able to recognize a formula for BPH as being different from a formula for IC?
BPH: Serenoa, Solidago (goldenrod as synergist), Lepidum (maca as prevention),
IC: demulcents, anti-allergy/anti-inflam, anti ulcer: Glycyrrhiza, something for pain
Centella (gotu kola to heal mucus memb), Petasites (butterbur, also for membranes), Sulfur containing: Lepidum (maca), Althea (in the asparagine), Bromelain, Allium

Specific Urinary Herbal Questions:
What is the main antimicrobial constituent in Arctostaphylos Uva ursi? Physiologic effect and Significance?
phenolic glycosides, flavinol glycosides, tannins
phenolic glycosides: arbutin, methylarbutin, hydroquinone, all become hydroquinone
pure phenols are toxic, renal harm, used short term
phenolics antimicrobial, occ emmenogogue, abortifacient: CI for use: preg
flavinol glycosides: rutin, querticitin, (also in ginkgo, onion, curcurmin)
tannins for drying action
family: ericaceae, also in family: cranberry, blueberry, contain sugar mannose
mannose great for UTIs, not sure if its in uva ursi
purified mannose powder for pts with repeat UTIs, costs more than herb but works
feel in bladder w/in 15 mins, less burning

What are the main constituents of Kava? Physiologic effect and Significance?
kavalactones, 15 of them, psychoactive
boost GABA, calming and antispasmodic esp in ureters
one is a MAO inhibitor (antidepressant)
another inhibits reuptake of norepi in brain (enhance focus)

Be familiar with the ACTIONS of the primary Vascular Herbs:

What are the BEST hyperlipdemics?
Allium (garlic), Cynara (artichoke), Commiphora (gugul), Zingiber (ginger), beta glucans in mushrooms incl Maitake, Reishi, Monascus (RYR)
GOOD FATS: coconut, avocado improve HDL/LDL ratios, Olea (olive), Linum usitassisumum (flax), Oenothera (Evening Primrose)

What are the BEST endothelial tonics (aka vascular stabilizers)?
Crataegus (hawthorne), vaccinium (berries), Vitus (grape, reservatrol), Rubus (raspberry), Pinus (picnogenal), Blueberries (anthocyanidins), Curcuma, Prunus (cherry), rose hips

What are the BEST antihypertensives?
Taraxicum (dandelion, mild diuretic), Rauwolfia (for emergency), Selenicterus (for bounding pulse, reactionary HTN), Nervines if stress induced (Passiflora, Scutellaria, Valeian, Hypericum), Leonurus & Tilia (beta blockers), Commiphora (anti-clot) or Achillea (if high fat diet), also add vascular stabilizers for long term HTN
Vasodilators via incr NO: Viscum (mistletoe), Allium (garlic), Angelica (dong quai)
CI: Ruscus (butcher's broom, it's vasoconstricting)

What are the BEST perfusion enhancing herbs?
Ginkgo, Capsicum (cayenne), Zingiber (ginger)
Vasodilators (see above), also Achillea for periphery

What are the BEST herbs for trauma to the vasculature and bruising?
Hypericum (St JW), Crataegus, Calendula (name the cell proliferant: allantoin)

Would you be able to recognize a formula for Hypertension as being different from a formula for CHF?

HTN formula: wide variety of possible ingredients incl hypotensives, lipid control, nervines

CHF formula: would include ionotropic agents not present in HTN formula: Digitalis, Convallaria (lily of the valley), Straphanthus (cactus), Crataegus of course

Would you be able to recognize a formula for varicose veins as being different from a formula for Hives?

Varicosity formula: Aesculus (horse chestnut), Vaccinium, Crataegus, Centella (gotu kola), Hamamaelis (witch hazel), Curcuma

Hives formula: Hamamelis (witch hazel), Urtica (nettle)

Would you be able to recognize a hemostatic formula as being different from a “blood moving” formula?
Hemostatic formula: Cinnamomum, Achillea (yarrow), Capsella (shepherd's purse), Ruscus (raspberry), Aesculus, Hamamelis
BLOOD MOVER formula ideas: Ginkgo, Capsicum,

Specific CV Herbal Questions:

What are the main constituent groups in Gingko? Physiologic effect and Significance?
heterolides, heteroglycosides contain proanthocyanidins, heterosides, carotoids (zeaxanthin, lutein), flavonoids--anti-inflam, anti-allergy, anti-ox, neuroprotect
cross links fibrin, improve circ, vasodilate, decr PLTN agg, inhibits lipid peroxidase

What are the main constituent groups in Crataegus? Physiologic effect and Significance?
PCOs, proanthocyanidins, flavonoids, anti-ox, prevent atherosclerosis
inhibit aldosterone, incr Ca+ in blood, prevent cAMP degradation-->ionotropic
stabilize capillaries, reduce vasc fragility & permeability
mild ACE inhibitor and Ca+ channel blocker

What are the main constituent groups in Vaccinium? Physiologic effect and Significance?
anthocyanosides, flavonoids, anti-ox, may incr CT cross linking, vasodilate

What are the main constituent groups in Allium? Physiologic effect and Significance?
sulfur containing compounds, alliin, anti-ca, anti-ox, anti-microb, anti-fungal, anti-viral

Misc CV Questions:

What is an ionotropic agent?
increases heart contractile force but not speed
Digitalis, pink bell shaped blossoms on spire, lanceolate leaves
improves ionic exchange at cell membrane, improves refractory period
Convallaria majalis is less cumulative and less toxic than dig, little white round bell flowers, she uses this, no broad application only for CHF, looks like lily family

What is a PAF Inhibitor? Significance? Herbal PAF Inhibitors?
platelet activating factor inhibitors -- stabilize platelets so they don't dump serotonin and kick off the clotting cascade, they can't stop it once it's started but they can cut down on clot formation and keep blood flowing
Astragalus: immune moderating, anti-allergy, decreases excessive PLT activation
Curcuma, Ginger, Capsicum, Cayenne
Centella asiatica: also wound healer, broken bones, nervous system protectant
Ginkgo biloba: fan shaped leaf
Commiphora myrrha: warm herb, spiky branch, myrr,
Linum ussitatisiumu; EFAs decrease plt activation, blue flower

What is Hypericine and what are its physiologic effects?
in StJW, non-specific kinase inhibitor, anti-microb, causes light sensitivity, binds ca

What is Bromelian? It’s plant source? Physiologic effects?
proteolytic enzyme found in pineapple cores, similar enzymes available from figs, papayas, anti-inflam fx
for varicose veins, scab or callous with constant friction
over a lifetime these decrease the progression of varicosities, maintain elasticity
Carica papaya: contains papain, proteolytic enzyme
Ananas comosus: bromelain
Figs, unripe: have ficain

What are coumarins and how is it similar and different from dicoumerol pharmaceuticals such as Coumadin?
coumarins thin blood but don't stop clots, are lactone glycosides
causes sun sensitivity, enhance venous return, move blood, not anticoag but
reduce inflammatory blood reactivity incl platelet partying
in Virburnum sp, Aesculus, umbels incl Angelica, parsley, Khella
coumadin (drug) anticoag, vitamin K antagonist stops formation of clotting factors

How might Tanacetum improve migraines and vascular allergies? By what mechanism?
Tanacetum = feverfew. Inhibits release of serotonin from plts which is a possible mechanism for migraine.

What is a hemostatic? What herbs have a hemostatic effect.
stops bleeding. Achillea, Hamamelis, Geranium, Ergot, Cinnamomum, Aesculus, Capsella (Shepherd's purse), Ruscus

Be familiar with the ACTIONS of the primary Dermatologic Herbs:

Which are the BEST alteratives to improve skin conditions?
Taraxicum, rumex, Arctium, Gallium

Which are BEST to heal injury and burns?
Hypericum, Aloe, Symphytum (Comfrey), Calendula (pot marigold)

Which are BEST to improve circulation in the skin?
Helichrysum (Everlasting)

Which are the BEST anti pruritic herbs.
Mentha piperita, Avena sativa, Lavendula (not for everyone, test first)

Which are BEST to use topically for infections?
Hydrastis, Mahonia, Tea Tree, Berberis

Which herbs are sometimes prepared into “Black Salves”?
Sanguinaria canadense esp for pap, Podophyllum, Grindelia, Pinus, Fagus, Juniperus

Which herbs are rich sources of essential fatty acids?
Linum usatitissimum (flax)
Oenothera (evening primrose)

Would you be able to recognize the difference between an acne formula and a dermatitis formula?

ACNE FORMULA: mostly alterative, lower blood sugar and improve liver function, Rumex, Arctium, Taraxicum, Gallium, Berberis, Allium, Baptisia, Ech, Phytolacca, Maleleucca, CALENDULA has beta-carotene: mix with alterative in acne formula, use proteolytic enzymes to reduce scarring, ASTRINGENTS such as Hamamelis may be useful for rinse
IF TEEN AND HORMONAL: consider vitex, cimicifuga, medicago sativa, foeniculum, rhodiola

DERMATITIS FORMULA: mostly anti-allergy, anti-inflam: EFAs, CURCUMA for inflam, somewhat alterative dt berberine-like compound, GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA all purpose immune modulator good for hyperreactivity too, incl AI dz, also ANGELICA

Would be able to recognize the difference between a topical hemostatic and a topical disinfectant?
TOPICAL HEMOSTATIC: Achillea, Quercus, Geranium
TOPICAL DISINFECTANT: Achillea, Mahonia, Coptis, Hydrastis, Phyllodendron, Huang Lyon Su, Malelucca alternifolia, Commiphora, Curcuma longa, Juglans

Specific Indications of:

Angelica: blood stagnation, CHF, HTN, intermittent claudication, vascular headaches, allergies, elderly, MI risk, atherosclerosis (Ca+ channel blocker, Nitrate promoter, mast cell stabilizer)

Hamamelis: tissues leaky, weak, bowel bleeds, varicosities, hemorrhoids, bleeding gums, avoid PO, apply directly to tissue affected limit PO use

Digitalis: heart too fast and weak, arrhythmias, CHF

Hypericum: burns, nerve damage, poor wound healing, excessive scarring, easy bruising, weak BVs, depression/anxiety/stress

Tanacetum: atopy (mast cell stabilizer)

Aesculus: lax veins, hemorrhoids, varicosities, weakness of renal, biliary or liver fx, liver dz, hep C, polypharmacy

for hemorrhoids, varicose veins
for improving biliary, liver, renal perfusion
esp for those with liver dz, hep c, polypharmacy

Capsella: bleeding, vasodilation (Brassica family)

Collinsonia: vascular congestion dt mucus membrane irrit, laryngitis, hemorrhoids, leaky capillaries

Mentha: postprandial angina, spasms of smooth muscle esp of GI, palpitations or BP spike after meal, portal congestion

Achillea: bleeding, menorrhagia, postpartum hemorrhage, HTN (vasodilates periphery), atonic bowel, angina

Selenicereus (Name changed to Cereus): arrhythmias, CHF, low BP or reactionary HTN w/ CHF, depression, hysteria/apprehension of danger and death, vertex headache, smoker

Leonurus: tachyarrhythmias or episodic HTN esp dt hyperthyroid, postmenopausal HTN & hot flashes, perimenopause, smoker, thick blood, sex hormones wacky so incr dopamine to regulate them

Gingko: poor perfusion, thick blood, angina, "tobacco heart", HTN, intermittent claudication, thromboses

Crataegus: any cardiovascular challenge, angina, brady-, tachy-, episodic arrhythmias, HTN, varicosities, capillary fragility, oxidative challenge, atherosclerosis, CHF, etc etc etc.

Allium: hyperlipidemia, HTN, angina, DVT, high chol/TGs, low HDL/high LDL, hemolysis, clotting, intermittent claudication, infection, CT weakness, mucus in lungs

Maleluca, Tea Tree: all purpose topical disinfectant, not in open wounds, soften skin around splinters

Quercus: bleeding, loose tissue, leaky capillaries, bleeding ulcers, hemorrhoids

Geranium: bloody diarrhea, other bleeding, topical

Avena (topically): bug bites, poison oak, itching, stings, chicken pox, crusty rashes, eczema, pitiriasis rosaceae, air dry

Calendula: weak or injured skin, poor perfusion, poor lymphatic drainage, acne, soothing succus for after black salve
Tags: cardiovascular, herbs, nd3, skin, urinary system

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