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HYDROGEN PEROXIDE


H2O2 = H-O-O-H
pale blue liquid
slightly more viscous than water
colorless in dilute solution
weak acid
first isolated in 1818 by Louis Jacques Thénard
100% pure hydrogen peroxide first obtained through vacuum distillation by Wolffenstein in 1894

USES
strong oxidizer (ROS)
powerful bleaching agent
disinfectant
antiseptic
oxidizer
rocket & satellite propellant
often used in biological experiments to induce oxidative stress
antiseptic/anti-bacterial in hospitals, doctor and dentist offices
to provide oxygen for small fish
to control sulfide and organic related odors in wastewater collection/treatment systems
to remove skunk odor, mixed with baking soda and a little hand soap
as emetic in veterinary practice (dogs): Merck "Hydrogen peroxide (3%) or salt applied to the in pet drinking water
back of the pharynx stimulates vomiting via the ninth cranial nerve. Small doses (5-10 mL) of hydrogen peroxide can be administered via oral syringe until emesis occurs. It should be administered cautiously, especially in cats, because aspiration of hydrogen peroxide foam causes severe aspiration pneumonia." http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/190303.htm
with phenyl oxalate ester and dye in glow sticks
for sterilization of medical equipment, pharmaceutical industry, cutting boards, etc.
widely used in the pharmaceutical industry
weak solution for watering plants/crops, enhance root development, stop root rot
to remove fresh blood-stains from clothing: use 3% and follow with cold water and soap
bleaching human hair (use 3%-12% concentration mixed with NH4) "peroxide blonde"
to whiten bones
as toothpaste when mixed with correct quantities of baking soda and salt
AS A VEGETABLE SANITIZER
spray veggies with vinegar and H2O2 in sequence, do not combine, order unimportant
rinse with water and dry before eating
removes harmful bacteria and pesticide residues
http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2001/07/21/vinegar.aspx

ACCEPTED BUT NOT UNIVERSAL MEDICAL USES
to sterilize equipment
3% used medically for cleaning wounds, removing dead tissue, as oral debrider
causes mild damage to tissue, best use with shallow wound/abrasion
rapidly stops capillary bleeding (esp oozing dt abrasion)
combined with benzoyl peroxide to treat ACNE
foot soak for diabetics
TREATMENT FOR TRENCHMOUTH
swish one capful in mouth for 10 minutes, then spit out
unproven: helps heal canker sores
proven: whiten teeth (Mercola: H2O2 not your best choice dt can cause teeth to become sensitive,
also forms radical intermediates that can damage and destroy gums and nerves)
Merck Manual recommends diluting 3% hydrogen peroxide 50 percent with water
FDA approved: 3% solutions as mouthwash
use short term, for infection, not long term as it may soften teeth
this study says it doesn't soften teeth:
1: J Appl Oral Sci. 2009 Aug;17(4):284-8. Effectiveness of home bleaching agents in discolored teeth and influence on enamel microhardness.
"Microhardness of bovine enamel was not affected by the bleaching agents. The 16% carbamide peroxide gel was the most effective for bleaching the stained substrate."
BOVINE TEETH SOFTENED SUPERFICIALLY
another study from : Dent Mater J. 2009 May;28(3):315-23.Links

WEBMED ON MEDICAL USES
mild antiseptic
use on skin to prevent infection of minor cuts, scrapes, and burns
mix 50/50 w/ water-->mouth rinse for minor irritations (canker/cold sores, gingivitis)
rinse up to 4x daily, swish for 1 minute then spit
DO NOT SWALLOW, if ingested call US National Poison Hotline at 1-800-222-1222
works by releasing oxygen, foaming helps remove dead skin
DO NOT USE to treat deep wounds, animal bites, or serious burns
do not use in the eyes or apply over large areas of skin
clean the affected area before use
apply a small amount to the affected area 1-3 times/day or as directed by doc
let area dry before applying bandage
SEs: redness, stinging, or irritation at the application
contact doc if irritation or signs of infection are present
webmd says allergies to H2O2 are rare (I wonder if they exist at all)

CONTROVERSIAL USES
most OTC peroxide solutions are not suitable for ingestion
some docs give internally or IV to increase oxygen
only 35% food grade H2O2 then diluted is considered suitable (by some) for internal use
Dr. Charles Farr, uses IV H2O2, "stimulates enzyme systems"-->incr metabolic rate-->small arteries dilate-->incr blood flow-->incr O2 consumption-->incr body temp (Proceedings of the International Conference on Bio-Oxidative Medicine 1989, 1990, 1991).
drop doses taken orally for many concerns, stomach must be empty, take vitamin E and acidophilus before and during rounds of this tx

CANCER TX
American Cancer Society advises against use as cancer tx
controversial alternative medical procedure: inhalation at 1% (for what?)
internal use of high concentration-->fatal blood disorders
SUPPORTERS OF H2O2 USE
http://www.cancertutor.com/Cancer/HydrogenPeroxide.html
http://www.alkalizeforhealth.net/oxygen.htm
OZONE AND H2O2 FOR CANCER TX
http://www.healingcancernaturally.com/ozone-cancer-treatment.html
SCIENCE FROM PUBMED
This study shows pro-apoptotic effect that may be useful in cancer tx:
A Role for Hydrogen Peroxide in the Pro-apoptotic Effects of Photodynamic Therapy.
Although the first reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed during irradiation of photosensitized cells is almost invariably singlet molecular oxygen ((1)O(2)), other ROS have been implicated in the phototoxic effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Among these are superoxide anion radical ((*)O(2)(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and hydroxyl radical ((*)OH). In this study, we investigated the role of H(2)O(2) in the pro-apoptotic response to PDT in murine leukemia P388 cells. A primary route for detoxification of cellular H(2)O(2) involves the peroxisomal enzyme catalase. Inhibition of catalase activity by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole led to an increased apoptotic response. PDT-induced apoptosis was impaired by addition of an exogenous recombinant catalase analog (CAT-skl) that was specifically designed to enter cells and more efficiently localize in peroxisomes. A similar effect was observed upon addition of 2,2'-bipyridine, a reagent that can chelate Fe(+2), a co-factor in the Fenton reaction that results in the conversion of H(2)O(2) to (*)OH. These results provide evidence that formation of H(2)O(2) during irradiation of photosensitized cells contributes to PDT efficacy.

And here's a study on the action of H2O2 in the formation of melanoma.

DYSBIOSIS
for dysbiosis of colon or vagina, douche or enema w/ 3 TBS 3% H202/1qt distilled water
then repopulate area with appropriate flora
anaerobes will be killed just by the presence of O2
http://educate-yourself.org/cancer/benefitsofhydrogenperozide17jul03.shtml

EMPHYSEMA
"cleanse the inner lining of the lung" via IV
International Bio-Oxidative Medicine Foundation (IBOM), P.O. Box 13205,
Oklahoma City, OK 73113 at (405) 478-4266.

DEATHS
recent uses as therapeutic tx has been linked to deaths
pt of SC doc dies of shock and DIC after IV H2O2 in 2005: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/01/12/60II/main666489.shtml

USE BY NATURE
present in atmosphere due to reaction of ozone with H2O
naturally produced by all living organisms
most organisms have peroxidases to break it down to H2O and O2
role in immune system (study in Nature)
hydrogen peroxide is released after tissues are damaged in zebra fish
thought to be chemotactic to WBCs
when genes disabled for H2O2 manufacture, WBCs didn't come running
"In the human body, hydrogen peroxide is produced primarily in three places - the lung, gut and thyroid gland." -bbc
thyroid, sex hormone prdctn (Mol Cell Endocrin 86;46(2): 149-154) (Steroids 82;40(5):5690579)
stimulates production of interferon (J Immunol 85;134(4):24492455)
dilates BVs in heart, brain (Am J Physiol 86;250 (5 pt 2): H815-821 and (2 pt 2):H157-162)
improves glucose utilization in diabetics (IBOM Conference 1989, 1990, 1991)

IN PATHOLOGY
ASTHMA sufferers have higher levels of hydrogen peroxide in their lungs
vitiligo epidermis shows increased H2O2 levels

MORE DANGERS
liberation of oxygen and energy in the decomposition has dangerous side effects
high concentration H2O2 on flammables-->combustion
careful storage of higher concentrations necessary
container must not react, must not let light in
70%+ concentrations-->vapors that will detonate above 70 °C (158 °F) at 1 atm-->boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) of the remaining liquid
distillation is dangerous
can form sensitive contact explosives with hydrocarbons such as greases
spontaneous ignition when spilled on fabric
swallowing-->mouth, throat irritation, gas released-->pain, ulcers/bleeds, N/V/D
inhalation-->lung irritation
on FDA 2006 warning not to ingest or inject 35% food grade H2O2:
http://www.webmd.com/news/20060728/high-strength-hydrogen-peroxide-danger
stabilizers may be toxic: acetanilide, phenol, sodium stanate, tertrasodium phosphate

ACETANILIDE
3% drug store H2O2 usually stabilized with acetanilide, which has toxic side effects
odourless solid chemical of leaf or flake-like appearance
aka N-phenylacetamide, acetanil, or acetanilid
formerly known by the trade name Antifebrin.
prodrug with analgesic and antipyretic (fever-reducing) properties
same class of drugs as acetaminophen (paracetamol)
much more toxic in these applications than other drugs
MORE TOXIC THAN ACETOMENOPHEN!
-->methemoglobinemia
-->liver and kidney damage

A RATIONAL DEFENSE
Mercola rises to the defense of medical uses that 60 minutes and FDA don't like:
http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2005/01/22/hydrogen-peroxide-part-three.aspx

REGULATION
FDA classified Low Regulatory Priority (LRP) for controlling fungus on fish and fish eggs
FDA: generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as antimicrobial, oxidizer & other purposes
classified by American Conference of Industrial Hygienists as "known animal carcinogen"
NIOSH Immediately dangerous to life and health inhalation limit (IDLH): 75 ppm
concentrations over 3% are typically accompanied by a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)

SOLUTIONS/CONCENTRATIONS
most commonly available as a solution in water
from pharmacies at 3 and 6 wt. % concentrations
one milliliter of a 20 volume solution generates twenty milliliters of oxygen gas
laboratory use: 30 wt. % solutions are most common
in solution with water the freezing point is lowered (eutectic mixture)
"20 volume" means that 1 volume of hydrogen peroxide-->20 volumes of oxygen
20 "volume" concentration = 1.667 mol/dm3 (Molar solution) or about 6%
drug store solution is 3%, not very stable at this concentration
drug store product usually stabilized with acetanilide, which has toxic side effects
strength of a solution may be described as a percentage or volume
1% hydrogen peroxide releases 3.3 volumes of oxygen during decomposition
3% solution is equivalent to 10 volume
6% solution to 20 volume
high concentrations = aggressive oxidizer, very corrosive, will react violently with reducer

SOME REACTIONS
spontaneously decomposes (exothermic) into water and oxygen gas spontaneously
2 H2O2 → 2 H2O + O2
ΔHo of −98.2 kJ·mol−1
ΔGo of −119.2 kJ·mol−1
ΔS of 70.5 J·mol−1·K−1
rate of decomposition depends on temp, concentration, pH, impurities and stabilizers
many substances catalyse is decomposition: transition metals, manganese dioxide, silver
same rxn catalyzed by liver catalase
certain catalysts (Fe2+ or Ti3+)-->free radicals such as HO· (hydroxyl) and HOO·
H2O2 + Fe2+ = Fenton's reagent
2 Fe2+(aq) + H2O2 + 2 H+(aq) → 2 Fe3+(aq) + 2H2O(l)
sulfite (SO32−) is oxidized to sulfate (SO42−)
potassium permanganate is reduced to Mn2+ by acidic H2O2
under alkaline conditions Mn2+ is oxidized to Mn4+ (as MnO2)
how you get O2 in the lab:
NaOCl + H2O2 → O2 + NaCl + H2O
Ph-S-CH3 + H2O2 → Ph-S(O)-CH3 + H2O
reaction with borax leads to sodium perborate, a bleach used in laundry detergents:
Na2B4O7 + 4 H2O2 + 2 NaOH → 2 Na2B2O4(OH)4 + H2O
H2O2 converts carboxylic acids (RCOOH) into peroxy acids (RCOOOH)

STORAGE
cool, dry, well-ventilated area
away from any flammable or combustible substances
container: non-reactive stainless steel or glass, some plastics, alluminum alloys
opaque container

SOURCES
BBC on zebrafish immunology research: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/8078525.stm
http://www.truthorfiction.com/rumors/h/hydrogen-peroxide.htm
http://www.cdc.gov/NIOSH/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_peroxide
http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/190303.htm
http://www.cancertutor.com/Cancer/HydrogenPeroxide.html
http://www.healingcancernaturally.com/ozone-cancer-treatment.html
on FDA 2006 warning not to ingest or inject 35% food grade H2O2:
http://www.webmd.com/news/20060728/high-strength-hydrogen-peroxide-danger
OZONE AND H2O2 FOR CANCER TX
http://www.healingcancernaturally.com/ozone-cancer-treatment.html
http://www.alkalizeforhealth.net/oxygen.htm
SOME SILLY EXPERIMENTS:
http://www.using-hydrogen-peroxide.com/elephant-toothpaste.html
TEETH NOT SOFTENED:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19668986?ordinalpos=7&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
BOVINE TEETH SOFTENED ONLY SUPERFICIALLY
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19662731?ordinalpos=16&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
STUDIES SHOWING PRO-APOPTOTIC EFFECT
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19659920?ordinalpos=23&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19657563?ordinalpos=25&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
MELANOMA STUDY
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19659742?ordinalpos=24&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
ONE MORE ON BOVINE TEETH BLEACHING
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19655647?ordinalpos=30&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum

H2O2 DISTRIBUTORS (35% Food Grade Hydrogen Peroxide)
www.curezone123.com
www.dfwx.com
www.pureh2o2forhealth.com

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