liveonearth (liveonearth) wrote,
liveonearth
liveonearth

Smoking



NICOTENE
rapidly absorbed
most addictive chemical in smoke
cotinine is most important metabolite, can be detected in blood or urine
polycyclic hydrocarbons are the primary carcinogens
smokeless still is addictive and cancer causing

SECONDHAND/PASSIVE INHALATION
worst impact on kids
more resp and middle ear infx
worse asthma

BENEFITS OF QUITTING
risk of CV dz and lung CA approaches that of nonsmoker after 15 years
risk of stroke approaches nonsmoker after 5-15 years
reduced risk of CA of the mouth, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, urinary bladder
inproved pulmonary function
reduced risk of pneumonia, influenza, bronchitis

RISK TO FETUS INSIDE SMOKER MOM
growth retardation
low birth weight

SYSTEMIC EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH TOBACCO USE
CV: more MIs, sudden death, peripheral vasc dz, HTN
CNS: more strokes, intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage
GI: oropharyngeal, esophageal, pancreatic CA, reflux dt relaxation of LES, delayed PUD healing
General: decreased activation of neut adhesion mols, decr ascorbic acid and beta-carotene conc
GU: cervical CA (SCC), decr test/est by gender, kidney CA (RCC), bladder CA (transitional CC)
Integument: wrinkling incr
MS: osteoporosis dt decr est in female, test in male
Resp: laryngeal CA (SCC) COPD (bronchitis, emphysema), Lung CA (SCC, small cell, adenocarc)
Special senses: decr smell and taste sense, macular degeneration-->blindness, cataracts

NERVOUS SYSTEM HOOK IN
there are two types of cholinergic receptors in the body: nicotinic and muscarinic
Nicotinic receptors exist in these locations:
autonomic ganglia
sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia
adrenal medulla
neuromuscular junctions

DRUGS THAT INHIBIT
hexamethonium inhibits the ganglia
tubocuranine inhibits the motor endplate receptors
(atropine inhibits muscarinic receptors)
Tags: addiction, cancer, cortisol, public health, smoking
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