How many ATP are yielded from complete oxidation of one 16 carbon fatty acid?
fats = 9 Kcal/gram
What's the key enzyme in lipolysis?
What's the key enzyme in lipid synthesis?
acetyl CoA carboxylase
What's the key enzyme of fat mobilization?
hormone sensitive lipase
What do you call the cleavage of the fatty acid at the carboxyl end to form the 2 carbon acetyl coA molecule?
CPT-1-->acyl units delivered into mito for beta oxidation
acyl-coA-->acetyl coA called beta oxidation
What does acetyl coA turn into in the citric acid cycle?
co2 and energy! and water?? and ????
hexose monophosphate shunt
3 interconnected cycles in which glucose 6-phosphate is the substrate and end product
rxns leading to ribulose-5-phosphate are irreversible, the rest are reversible
NADPH & ribose-->F6P
CHO-->Acetyl CoA-->Malonyl CoA-->Palmitate
What is the enzyme that converts Acetyl CoA-->Malonyl CoA?
Acetyl CoA Carboxylase
Where does all this happen?
in the cytosol
What hormone increased Acetyl CoA Carboxylase action?
Malonyl CoA inhibits CPT-1 function???
Acyl units contribute to CPT-1 function???
What is CPT-1?
a transporter that brings acyl CoA into the mitochondrion?
Acyl units aka fatty acids become what when they are esterified?
Where do TG's go from the cytosol?
into the blood
ffa-->acyl coA via acyl coA synthase
acyl coA-->acetoacetyl coA via beta oxidation
acetoacetyl coA-->acetyl coA via a thiolase, goes both ways
acetoacetyl coA can also-->HMG-coA via HMG coA synthase
Can you make acetyl coA from HMG-coa?
can go HMG coA-->acetyl coA-->acetoacetyle coA-->back to HMG coA
What are the two other major products made from HMG-coA?
What enzyme is inhibited by statins?
What three products are made from mevalonate?
Which one of these products is part of cholesterol synthesis?
What is the enzyme for the last step to cholesterol?
alpha? delta? 24 reductase
Which compounds can be converted to ketones?
HMG-CoA-->acetoacetate-->ketone = D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate
What enzyme converts HMG coA to acetoacetate?
HMG coA lyase (I think it makes both acetyl coA and acetoacetate)
What is acetoacetate good for?
What enzyme converts acetoacetate to ketone?
What enzyme breaks TG's down to fatty acids?
lipoprotein lipase in liver
also hormone sensitive lipase in adipose (epi and cortisol incr, insulin decr action)
What is LPL?
makes glycerol in plasma and FFA in adipose or muscle
from VLDL and chylomicrons full of TG's
Where does lipogenesis take place?
Where does ketogenesis take place?
Where does beta oxidation take place?
What can you make out of glycerol?
TG's if you add fa's
What does thiokinase make?
acyl coA from acyle, ATP and coA-Sh (Sh and AMP and 2pi released)
How do acyl-coA's get into the mitochondria?
What is CPT-1?
carnitine palmitoyl transferase I
What is VDAC?
looks like it's a prot that forms the pore through the outer mito membrane
transporter in inner mito membrane, gets acyl-coA in
carnitine is attached to acyl group when it travels between inner & outer membranes
is recycled when acyl group dropped off at inner
Name the enzyme that attaches the coA to the acyle group.
aka acyl coA synthase
not sure where the sulfur goes but it is in acyl coA and lost with acyl-carnitine
so coA must have sulfur in it
oh yes it does, aka coAsh for the sulfhydryl
Where are TG's broken to acyl groups and connected to coA?