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Biochem High Points: Carb Metabolism

What enzyme shuts down gluconeogenesis?
fructose 1,6 phosphate
shuts down gluconeo when F6P or F26P concentrations rise

What two enzymes begin the process of breaking down glucose?
hexokinase in muscle and glucokinase in liver

What other sugar can hexokinase work on?
d-fructose from diet-->F-6-P in glycolysis lineup

What enyzme splits fructose 1,6 bisphosphate into glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate?
aldolase A or B

What byproduct is created when alanine is converted to pyruvate?
NH3 (urea)

What is THE rate limiting enzyme in glycolysis?
phosphofructokinase

What inhibits PFK function?
ATP and citrate
fatty acids, ketone bodies, glucagon, cAMP

What induces PFK?
insulin

What activates PFK?
AMP, F6P, Pi, F2,6bisP

What's the ATP breakeven point in glycolysis?
PEP

What enzyme converts PEP to pyruvate?
pyruvate kinase

What enzyme converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA?
pyruvate dehydrogenase

What are the 3 top substrates for gluconeogenesis?
alanine, lactate, glycerol

What four enzymes are key in gluconeogenesis?
hints:
py box, py box kin, f-1,6 diP, glu-6P
translated:
pyruvate carboxylase
pyruvate carboxykinase
F-1,6 diphosphatase
glucose-6 phosphatase

Which one of those enyzmes converts oxaloacetate to PEP?
pyruvate carboxykinase

Which one converst pyruvate to oxaloacetate?
pyruvate carboxylase

Which one converts F-1,6-P to F-6-P?
F-1,6 diphosphatase

Which one makes glucose from G6P?
glucose-6-phosphatase

What enzyme interconverts pyruvate and lactate?
LDH, I think that's lactate dehydrogenase

Which member of the TCA cycle can cross the mitochondrial membrane?
malate

What is formed by fatty acid breakdown that can join the TCA cycle?
acetyl CoA

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