What infectious agent do you suspect if your pt presents with bilateral facial neuropathy?
What's a common incorrect treatment for trigeminal neuralgia?
dentists pull teeth unnecessarily
Which three cranial nerves account for the majority of mononeuropathies in clinical practice?
facial (VII), trigeminal (V), and oculomotor (III)
What is the most common cranial nerve neuropathy?
What is the most common presentation of Bell's palsy?
unilateral facial weakness
that began abruptly
often preceded by pain behind the ear
possible hx of URI 1-3 weeks prior
can be bilateral
must protect eyes that won't close
What are some possible etiologies of Bells?
viral infection of facial nerve
HSV-1 implicated because its DNA found in nerve bx speciments
allo tx: anti-hsv regimen and prednisone
When might you expect a worse prognosis with Bell's palsy?
altered taste sense
What's the diagnosis if the pt experiences short periods of intense, paroxysmal pain in the maxillary or mandibular area of the face?
What's the old name for trigeminal neuralgia?
What's the most common cause of trigeminal neuralgia?
most common: idiopathic
many cases also caused by BV compression of trigeminal nerve root at the pons
can be caused by hyperactivity of the trigeminal nerve nucleus
What's the treatment if the nerve irritation is caused by contact with an artery or vein?
surgery to anchor the blood vessel away from the nerve
Which artery is usually involved if the nerve root is compressed at the pons?
SCA = superior cerebellar artery
What are some common mononeuropathies of limb nerves? (5 in my list)
carpal tunnel syndrome
brachial plexus n.
plus one not in a limb: perineal paresthesia also common
What are some risk factors for carpal tunnel?
repetitive motion: carpenters, typists, kayakers
What nerve is compressed in carpal tunnel?
What are some treatments for carpal tunnel?
B complex vits esp B1, 6, 12 for nerve health
splint to sleep or work (minimize repetitive motion or resting at end of ROM)
What nerve is involved in meralgia paresthetica?
-->sensory loss, prickling, or hypersensitivity on anterolateral thigh
boundaries sharply defined, no abn in motor or DTR's
Who is most likely to get meralgia paresthetica?
an obese person dt incr mechanical stress on inguinal ligament
tx: wt loss, steroids, nerve ablation last
What does LFCN stand for?
lateral femoral cutaneous nerve
Which patients most often have polyneuropathies?
symmetrical, distal, sensorimotor
sensory loss in feet and fingers, mild weakness of feet and ankles is typical
Besides the glove and stocking distribution numbness, what sensation may be especially difficult in this?
wants to put feet in bucket of ice water
What's the pathogenesis of diabetic polyneuropathy?
in this class we are told it is due to:
microvascular dz, endothelial inflam, atherosclerosis-->hypoxia-->ischemia of nerves
another proposed mechanism is the accumulation of sorbitol and depletion of inositol in nerves
What does the decreased inositol supposedly cause?
reduced activity of the sodium potassium pump-->changed conduction, structural alterations of axons
In diabetic rats, a reduction in nerve blood flow and oxygen tension causes what?
abnormal nerve conduction
partial correction of abnormalities can be achieved with 100% O2
Diabetics with peripheral neuropathies also may have autonomic changes. How do these express?
impaired gastrointestinal motility (gastroparesis sometimes)(celiac plexus neuropathy)
blunting of sympathetically mediated warning symptoms of hypoglycemia
this is interesting
So the reason why diabetics often do not recognize their own hypoglycemia is that their autonomic nervous system has been damaged by long duration high blood sugar, by whichever mechanism you like.
What part of the nervous system degenerates in 60% of patients with longterm renal failure?
What is the mechanism?
not known for certain
called uremic neuropathy, suspect that neurotoxic uremic buildup injures nerves
even severe cases can resolve in months with tx (dialysis, transplantation)
What is the most common cause of acute generalized paralysis in the US?
Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS)
What caused the last major outbreak of GBS?
the swine flu vaccine of 1976
suspicion of AI rxn, many pts report a URI prior
How challenging is the diagnosis of GBS?
dx after sx are full blown is not difficult
What's the first symptom of GBS?
first sx is prickling paresthesia, beginning in feed and spreading up legs
often pts are discharged from the ER with dx of anxiety
return a day or two later with obvious progressive limb weakness
What is CIDP?
chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy
What causes it?
How common is it?
How does it present?
like GBS but slower: insidious, weeks to months
What is the course of the dz?
paralysis may relapse and remit or be persistent
some experience gradual spontaneous remission
may interfere with breathing (Miller sez dt paralysis of intercostals!!?)
How do you diagnose amyloid neuropathy?
sx: symmetrical sensory and motor polyneuropathy
What are the two types of amyloid neuropathy?
"systemic" and "familial"
he says you can tell acquired from inherited by staining for immunoglobulins
HUH? so acquired is autoimmune?
Can cancer cause neuropathies?
but of course
seems to be dt immune response to cancer accidentally demyelinating nerves
What is the mechanism of ethanol-related neuropathy?
mb dt neurotoxic effect of ethanol
or malnutrition (thiamine and other B vits depleted)
and seems to me also blood sugar issues
attempts to produce ethanol neuropathy in well fed animals have failed
in cell cultures nerve cells don't grow with moderately high concentrations of ethanol
What's the first symptom of ethanol neuropathy?
loss of distal DTRs
What are the main symptoms?
burning or stabbing pain in feet and sometimes hands
maybe also decreased sensation, or hypersensitivity
mild distal weakness
(sounds just like diabetic sx)
"painful foot syndrome"
What other signs and symptoms are usually present if a pt has this neuropathy?
chronic liver disease
gait ataxia: wide gait dt posterior column compromise
What do the Danish put in their beer to prevent all this?
thiamine and pyridoxine (vitamins B1 and B6)
What are a couple types of drugs that can cause neuropathies?
tuberculosis tx (needs B complex)
drugs containing gold or platinum
What do you call it when the sx get worse even after you've stopped taking the troublesome drug?
What's another metal that causes neuropathies (besides gold and platinum)?
lead, arsenic, mercury
What are the sx of lead neuropathy?
predilection for upper limbs
also assoc with abdominal pain, constipation and anemia
Which metal causes abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, skin and nail changes?
What anaerobic bacterium can cause paralytic illness?
How does C. botulinum affect the PNS?
blocks voluntary motor and autonomic chlinergic neuromuscular junctions
prevents motor fiber stimulation
What environment makes C.bot happy enough to grow and make poison?
What nerves are affected first?
cranial nerves-->diplopia, ptosis, dysarthria, then can't hold head up
followed by more cranial nerve palsies-->descending flaccid paralysis
may involve respiratory muscles
What happens to the sensory pathways?
nothing, they're fine
What are some other infectious agents that can cause polyneuropathies? (4)
What's the name of the bug that causes leprosy?
What climates support leprosy growth?
tropical and subtropical
What do you culture the bacterium in for diagnosis?
seriously now folks
What causes the sensory neuropathy (distal burning sensation) in HIV/AIDs?
vitamin B deficiency?
not always known
What spirochete infection is transmitted to humans get when bitten by Ixoides ticks?
What are the main early neurologic features of Lyme disease?
cranial neuropathies and/or spinal nerve radiculopathies
headache and stiff neck may indicate meningeal inflam
often misdx'd as Bell's palsy
Between the cranial neuropathies and the spinal radiculopathies, which has a better prognosis?
the cranial neuropthies usually resolve, but the peripheral neuropathy of late stage dz may become chronic
What is the most common viral pathogen affecting the PNS?
varicalla zoster virus (VZV)
What viral family does VZV belong to?
What is a person's initial infection with VZV known as?
When the virus proliferates later in life due to immune system decline, what is it?
What causes the patient to feel bad long before the skin symptoms arrive in shingles?
What's the usual presentation of shingles?
first pain in dermatomal pattern
followed in 3-14 days by exquisite pain and vesicular rash
1-3 dermatomes involved
rash lasts 7-10 days
sensory changes may last much longer, be permanent
What do you call it when the pain continues 1-2 months (or more) after the rash is gone?
PHN = post herpetic neuralgia
What population has the highest risk of PHN?
incidence is 45% in pts over 65 yo
What do you call it when the virus infects the facial nerve near the inner ear?
Ramsay Hunt syndrome
may have vesicles on nose or in ear canal
concern that optic nerve could be involved-->blindness
What two nerve distributions are most commonly affected by shingles?
thoracic and trigeminal
Which trigeminal branch most often is affected by shingles?
What tx does Miller favor for PHN?