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PRE CLASS QUIZ
lobelia best for acute wheezing
tussilago more in longterm formula
armoracia best to clear mucuous and sinus pressure
lomatium best for acute respiratory viruses

THIS CLASS ON NERVOUS SYSTEM
these herbs have many actions
neurotransmitters
hormones
catecholamines
corticotropins: bupleurum,

STRESS
Hans Selye's work, psych in 50-60's, coined GAS, general adaptation syndrome, when we are stressed, CRH-->ATCH-->adrenals react to emergency-->adrenaline, cortisol-->may lead to suppressed immune function, may occur dt exogenous steroids--->eventually adrenals burn out from bombardment of ACTH receptors, adrenal gland downregulates/decreases number of ACTH receptors. This is adrenal fatigue.

Cortisol has daily rhythm, highest at dawn and decreases through day, people whose cortisol is too high don't sleep well Elevated cortisol while it lasts-->worse endocrine and immune fx, decreased longevity, loose muscle mass, hormonal imbalance, fatigue, reproductive pathologies, DUB. Elevated adrenaline makes us burn through our blood sugar, mobilize glycogen etc-->eventually fatigue, can't think clearly, poor stress response, emotional lability, depressed immune.

Tx for stress/exhaustion: alleviate stress circumstances as possible, nervines to blunt brain's excessive demands of adrenals and adaptogens to help adrenals to be more responsive.

Tx post steroid use, longterm use dt chronic asthma, eczema: add adaptogens and cut prednisone dose as possible, replace steroids with more direct treatment

Adrenals produce DHEA, "the mother hormone", basic shape can be shunted into other pathways including sex hormone production; if all DHEA is used for cortisol then less available for est and test. DHEA/cortisol want ratio over 1. Disease assoc with inversion: alzheimers and cognitive impairment. There are only a few enzymes that metabolize cortisol, the half-metabolites are very inflammatory, one stage is structurally simmilar to mescaline.

ADAPTOGENS
all these good for chronic fatigue, exhaustion, constantly ill
anxiety and panic attacks
depression

glycyrrhiza prolongs halflife of cortisol

wilthania somniferum = indian ginseng, not really a ginseng but has similar activity
aka ashwaganha, not sedating but helps cortisol elevation and helps sleep
Stansbury has them take it 3x/day, I've been told take it morning and noon

panax ginseng: vital tonic, improve energy and sexual function, keep adrenals toned to respond well to stress

eleutherococcus = Chinese ginseng

oplopanax native to PNW, same stuff

matricaria = chamomile as adrenal herb, used for stress, ACTH effects, adrenal output

LIMBIC SYSTEM
these herbs may affect limbic sys by odor alone
aromatics, may use oils, candles, diffusers, perfume
work on brain part of HPA axis, calm us so we don't drive the adrenals so hard
affect dopamine, serotonin
dopamine regulates female hormones

melissa and lavendar for PCOS, thyroid dz
melissa = lemon balm, the gladdening herb, antidepressant

humulus = hops, effects same as kava
kava = piper methysticum, sedating via limbic system, increase parasympathetic
these may affect receptors without binding them, change binding of adrenaline, new research
co-reception research, receptors are synergistic
hops and kava act as coreceptors in limbic sys, favoring parasympathetic

lavendula
rosa
rosmarinus
these may have calming effect just from the odor

PARASYMPATHETIC
humulus
rauwolfia more known for cardiovascular system, Ghandi used it every day
papaver and corydalis are opiates, encourage parasympathetic tone

SYMPATHETIC
coffee sometimes used for acute asthma attacks, one strong cup
ephedra
kola nut has caffeine

myristica = nutmeg stims amphetamines, is it addictive?, stims dopamine receptors
dopamine involved in addiction
"people who like nutmeg smell tend to be coke addicts"

cafha edulis

star anise has delicious licorice flavor and mildly sympathetic

ritalin: who to give it to? might sometimes want to stimulate someone but how do you know?
MANY WHO CRAVE STIMULANTS REALLY NEED SEDATIVES

INDOLAMINES
precursed by tryptophan
incl serotonin & melatonin
mood neurotransmitters
day & night cycles
psylocibin makes serotonin flood
visual phenomena from high indolamine intake

Psilocybin is dephosphorylated in the body to psilocin which acts as a partial agonist at the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor in the brain where it mimics the effects of serotonin (5-HT). Psilocin is an 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/2C agonist.

SEROTONIN
hypericum = a weak SSRI: serotonin stays in synapse prolonging firing of happy nerve
antianxiety effect, mood lifter

ginkgo: prevents age related decline of neurotransmitters,
prevents atrophy of brain tissues
one more can't read

MELATONIN
anything with tryptophan is sedating

passiflora
avena
glycine mar = soybeans

rivea corymbosa = hallucinogenic, "sky high" in tryptophan

GABA AGONISTS
mellowing out
valerian like valium
for panic attacks, body tension, etc

leonurus = motherwort, also for cardiovasc and thyroid
hypericum also boosts serotonin, relaxing
withania somniferum = affects adrenal upreg and gaba upreg
passiflora = passion flower
kava
tilia = linden flower tea great for HTN, stress, anxiety, all purpose calming herb

CATECHOLAMINES
alertness, conscious function
epinephrine
norepi

EPI & NOREPI
andrenergic
alpha and beta andrenergic receptors
alpha agonist: yohimbe
beta agonists: lobelia, leonusu, viburnum, tilia, (works on BV's and uterus)

lobelia relaxes bronchi, used for tachycardia, coronary vasospasm, angina,
lobelia oil on cervix during delivery to help dilation

leonurus is beta blocker and gaba agonist, good for PMS, HTN

viburnum is ace in the hole menstrual cramp herb, works immediately
viburnum also for other body cramps, tension headache, muscle cramps, bronchi

tilia

ACETYLCHOLINE

NICOTINIC AGONISTS: nicotine, lobeline

MUSCARINIC
control sweat
secretory stimulant

AGONISTS:
iris makes all secretions go, saliva, vaginal, sweat, diuretic, digestion: HCl
iris binds muscarinic receptors
pilocarpus for eyedrops, circ enhancement for eye
physostignine, chemical warfare weapon it is so stimulating, BOARD EXAM extreme secretions

ANTAGONISTS
tropane alkaloids
gimsun weed, belladonna, red as a beet, dry as a bone
blocks muscarinic receptors
not so relevant clinically but

CHOLINERGICS
promotes acetylcholine
improve cognitive fx
alzheimer's tx
mechanisms: make more acetylcholine (ingest more choline), inhibit breakdown (cholinesterase inhibitor)
sage "why should anyone die when they have sage in their garden"
rosemary
hupersia from China, tons of research, huperzines are cholinergic agents,
a species of club moss, lycopodium

DOPAMINE
marijuana, gynecomastic in men heavy duty potheads, dopamine regs FSH and LH, stims prolactin
cimicifuga: for mood and female hormonal imbalance, depression anxiety
works on dopamine
amphetamines
hypericum
rawolfia

NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT for NERVOUS SYSTEM HEALTH

CARNITINE = aa
upregs intracellular kinases, cell works better
neuroprotective

DMAE = aa
evokes EKG changes
higher awareness
stronger concentration
improve memory

EFA's and PHOSPHOLIPIDS
phosphotydylcarnitine and serine
improve memory and concentration
for alzheimers
deficiency allows excessive inflam

PHOSPHOTIDYLSERINE
occurs naturally in brain in high amoutns
membrane-membrane communication
neurotransmitter release
receptor activity
reduce cortisol induced inflam
improve cognition in elderly in a DBPC (double blind placebo controlled) study in Italy

CHOLINERGIC BOTANICALS
Bacopa monniera, bacopa or brahmi, for cognition, balance
Ayurvedic traditional
contains steroidal saponins "bacopasides", neural protectants

Huperzia serrata, chinese club moss, contains alkaloids call Herperzines, promote acetylcholine synthesis and activity
like lycopodium
for senility, weakness of aged, feebleness
seed container is operculum with explosive pollen, party trick, throw it over a fire
doctrine of signatures: unassuming, not attractive plant, inside has power and spark
vital force and fire

Vinca minor
contains vincamine
improve memmory and cerebral blood flow, ATP synthesis
glucose and oxygen utilization in CNS
similar to ginkgo
in Alzheimer's formulas

Ginkgo biloba
maidenhair tree
doc of sigs: sim to two lobes of brain
may improve cerebral circ
superoxide dismutase: antioxidant and neuroprotective
several promising trials on alzheimers and dementia

Salvia officianalis
sage
cholinergic activity
listed in old herbals to improve longeivty and cognition
cholinesterase inhibitor

Rosmarinus officinale
for remebrance
antiox
may have cholinergic and neuroprotective effects

BOTANICAL NERVINES
reduce stress response
sedating, calming, possibly stimulating
reduce CRH and reduce excessive adrenal resonse
adaptogens improve cortisol regulation (panax, withania)
may bind gaba receptors (valerian, withania, hypericum, scutellaria, passiflora)
may act on opioid, dopaminergic and/or seretoninergic pathways
(hypericum, melissa, eschscholtzia (ca poppy), cimicifuga (black cohosh), corydalis)

Matricaria chamomila
GI relaxer
nervine

Scutellaria lateriflora
not showy, is diminutive, small flower
similar chem to valerian but milder
"mad dog" for shaking of rabies

Avena
oats
high tryptophan content
some other unusual aa's
gramine, amino in grains
graminaceae
calming
high doses at bedtime for insomnia
classic

Passiflora incarnata
the passion of Christ
count the steeples etc 12 for apostles whatever biblical
like thorny crown around head
purple for passion

Leonurus cardiaca
for tachycardia or arrhythmia of endocrine etio
too much TSH: hyperthyroid
stress response too high
panic attacks
female herb
cardiovascular herb, affects platelet agg and good for atherosclerosis
GABA up and beta blocker
blood mover
nervine
hormonal balancer

panax ginseng
classic adrenal

OPIOIDS
stress and adrenaline can induce cardiac arrhythmiacs, so can opioids
Rhodiola, eleutherococcus and panax ginseng are similarly effective
via central and peripheral opioid receptors
if something impinges on gaba then ???

Eschscholtzia
california poppy
orange flower

Papaver somniferum
opium poppy
drug source: morphine
relatives for tea: eschscholtzia or corydalis

ADAPTOGENS
panax ginseng and others improve ACTH and CRH balance
five leaf
deciduous forest
read slides skipped
help recovery of adrenal glands
improves corticoid response and feedback loos of corticotropin with HPA
animal studies show improved exercise tolerance

Rhodiola rosea
promote parasymp
adrenal adaptogen
not overstimulating
hint of stim
funny florets succulent looking plant
prevent stress induced cardiac damage
prevents catecholamine release and high cAMP in mycardium assoc w/ stress
SAS = sympatho-adrenal-system, works on this
excitotoxins
salidroside is constituent that prevents excess Ca++ channel activity (stops glutamate)
Tx for MSG problem???

Eleutherococcus
Araliaceae family
Siberian ginseng
improves stress tolerance
improves immune fx and infx resistance
good for chemo/radiation SE's
contains coumarins, glycosides,
immune stimulating polysaccharides known as eleutherosides A, B, C, D, E

Withania somniferum
nightshade family: Solanacaea
ashwaghanda means like a horse
smell? not pleasant, animal like
makes you strong
anti-inflam activity direct on wounds sim to hydrocortisone
contains withaferin A anti-inflam
imrpove cardiac fx
increase heart wt and glycogen content in myocardium and liver
withanolides are anxiolytic and antidepress, may act on GABA system
stops stress induced memory disruption

neuroprotect
ginkgo

Centella asiatica
is gotu kola
juiced in Asia
little round leaves
mix juice with sugar can, serve in plastic bag with straw
also canned
heals body tissues, bones, intestine ulcers, bladder ulcers, osteoporosis,
like equisetum
circ effects in brain, neuroprotectant, prevent age related demise to neuroreceptors

Lavendula
purple flower
smell-->many say naptime

Rosa
heart chakra
love, heart, romance

Citrus
mood elevating
orange, lime, lemon
products with lemon scent sell better
smile
aromatherapy
tea must have sensual appeal to be often used
medicine in beauty of tea, color, sensual relationship

Melissa cintronelle
extremely lemony
lemon balm
the gladdening herb
upper
some reseach shows it works on dopamine
also antiviral, colds, herpes, EO as topical
thyroxine production decrease if excessive, regulates TSH release mb via dopa

Rauwolfia serpentina
ramps down sympathetic, up parasympathetic
Gandhi's herb of choice
depletes brain of dopamine over long term
constituent used to induce parkinsonism in lab animals
can depress people (dopamine can cause depression)
CI: parkinson's (these pts may need stim instead)
lanceolate leaves from central stem, shrubissh, red flower, looks like a good sized plant

Humulus lupulus
strobiles are flowers
stims parasympathetic and binds GABA receptors

TROPANE ALKALOIDS
Tropane alkaloids more for homeopathics

Datura Stramonium, as stramonium
for paranoia, dementia, schizophrenia, hallucination

Atropa belladonna
for acute spastic pain, used very rarely
suppository for rectal spasm
bell shaped flower, yellow and red/purple
witchy tradition: ointments for hallucination and visual effect
oral intake-->nausea, vomiting
broom handle with rag soaked in tea used vaginally
devil's cherries: not edible

BETA BLOCKERS
(tobacco is beta agonist)

Tilia europea
nerve calming agent
for anxiety, insomnia
safe herb
called lime blossom
Tilia americana, cordata also
beta blocker

Viburnum
ace in hole uterine cramp tx
lowers BP
also beta blocker

Lobelia inflata
dilator for acute resp
beta blocker

Passiflora binds gaba receptors
calming

Piper mehtysticum
kava
big gun
slur speech, loss of coordination

Suctellaria

Valerian

Hypericaum
yellow flower
SSRI

Opiates
Papveracea
Corydalis
Eschsch...

Neurostim
nutmeg
ephedra
myristica is nutmeg too
coffee arabica
erythroxylan - coca

serotinergics
psilocybin mushroom makes serotonin flood
ginkgo prevents age related decline

Comments

( 2 comments — Leave a comment )
hausfrauatu
May. 22nd, 2009 10:15 pm (UTC)
*waves*

Thank you for posting. I feel like CRAP. Spent and unmotivated all of the time. Very little passion or drive. I feel almost sick, but not quite. I want to do crazy things just to feel alive again. I get 8 hours of sleep at least a night and I still wake up really sluggishly. I guess I'll have to be more aggressive looking for my mojo. I'm just not doing much. blah.
liveonearth
May. 23rd, 2009 03:40 am (UTC)
Well shit I hope you start feeling better. Do you know what is getting you down? Ever heard of adrenal fatigue? That's what you sound like in this comment.
( 2 comments — Leave a comment )

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