liveonearth (liveonearth) wrote,

Eat Your Oranges

After reading all this I am increasingly concerned that I have been told to avoid citrus except for lemons to reduce arthritis. I am not convinced.


--one orange supplies 116.2% of RDA of vit c
--vit C intake reduces colon cancer risk
--vit C prevents the free radical damage that triggers the inflammatory cascade, reduces severity of asthma, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis

--greater absorption of the nutrients when consumed within the fruit
--over 170 different phytonutrients
--more than 60 flavonoids
--many have anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, antioxidant, blood clot inhibiting properties
--phytonutrients, esp polyphenols are high in citrus (oranges contain 84mg Gallic Acid equivalents/100mg)
--polyphenols abundant in oranges have a wide range of antioxidant, anti-viral, anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-carcinogenic effects
--flavones include hesperetin, naringenin, herperidin
--hydroxycinnamic acids
--vitamin C

--lowers high BP and cholesterol in animals
--reduces inflammation
--found in the peel and innerwhite pulp of the orange (not in OJ)

--VIT C supplements do not provide the same protective benefits as drinking OJ (Division of Human Nutrition at the University of Milan, Italy, Guarnieri S, Riso P, et al., British Journal of Nutrition)
--n=21, 7 in each group
--three drinks, two weeks apart
--drink types:
----blood-orange juice with 150mg vit C
----fortified water containing 150 milligrams of vitamin C
----sugar and water solution containing no vitamin C
--collect blood samples immediately before the drink was consumed, then every hour for 8 hours, and finally 24 hours after consumption of each drink
--blood samples were exposed to hydrogen peroxide, and free radical damage to DNA was evaluated at 3 and 24 hours
--OJ gave only protective effect, after 3 hours DNA damage was 18% less, after 24 hours it was 16% less
--no protection against DNA damage was seen after the vitamin C fortified drink or the sugarwater
--other studies that look at much larger quantities of vitamin C have shown a protective effect from the vitamin alone

"The Health Benefits of Citrus Fruits"
--December 2003
--248-page review by Australian research group, CSIRO (The CommonwealthScientific and Industrial Research)
--48 studies show that a diet high in citrus fruit provides a statistically significant protective effect against some types of cance
--21 studies show a non-significant trend towards protection.
--citrus appears to offer the most significant protection against esophageal, oro-phayngeal/laryngeal (mouth, larynx and pharynx), and stomach cancers (risk reductions 40 - 50%)
--one large US study that one more serving of fruit and vegetables per day reduce the risk of stroke by 4%
--if the one serving is citrus, the risk reduction is increased 5-6 times (about 19%)
--also good for arthritis, asthma, Alzheimer's disease and cognitive impairment, Parkinson's disease, macular degeneration, diabetes, gallstones, multiple sclerosis,cholera, gingivitis, optimal lung function, cataracts, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's dz
--citrus is low fat, nutrient-rich food with a low glycemic index-->protective against overweight, obesity

World Health Organization
--recent draft report, "Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Disease"
--diet with citrus protects against cardiovascular dz due to citrus fruits' folate
--folate lowers homocystiein
--something about potassium and lowering BP
--protects against stroke and arrhythmias

--limonoids help fight cancers of the mouth, skin, lung, breast, stomach and colon
--our bodies can readily absorb and utilize a very long-acting limonoid called limonin that is present is citrus fruits in about the same amount as vitamin C (US Agricultural Research Service)
--in citrus limonin is in this form: limoninglucoside, in which limonin is attached to a glucose which our digestive enzymes easliy cleave off
--ARS study, n=16, dose of limoningloucoside equal to 1-7 glasses of OJ, was shown present in plasma with concentrations highest 6 hours after consumtion, still traces present in 5 volunteers 24 hours after dose
--limonin's bioavailability and persistence may help explain whcitrus limonoids are potent anti-carcinogens --phenols in green tea and chocolate remain active in the body just 4-6 hours
Tags: antioxidants, cancer, chocolate, food, inflammation, nutrition, tea, vit c, vitamins

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