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PGE1--reduce allergies, prevent inflam, increase stomach mucous prod, decrease BP, improve nerve fx, help promote immune response (which one? I think she means Th1 response)

PGE2--stim allergy response (Th2), promotes inflam, increases platelet aggregation, increases smooth muscle contraction, suppresses immun fx (I think she means Th1 response)

PGE3--blocks release of proinflam PG's (PGE2), promotes immune fx, decreases platelet agg., increases HDL ("good" cholesterol), decreases triglycerides (TG's), inhibits inflam

linoleic acid-->PGE1
--from safflower oil, sunflower oil and seeds, sesame oil and seeds, and breast milk

arachidonic acid-->PGE2
--from meats, dairy products, breast milk

alpha-linolenic acid-->PGE3
--=ALA is converted to omega 3's in liver
--from pumpkin seeds, flaxseeds, walnuts, soybeans and breast milk

eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can be made from ALA
--found in breast milk, cold water fish esp salmon, mackerel, sardines, trout

diet advice
--get nuts, seeds and cold water fish in diet to inhibit inflam

enzymes that create PG's and arachidonic metabolites are important
--phospholipase A2 (PLA2) releases arachidonic acid from cell membranes, this is the first step in inflam
--cyclooxygenase (COX) converts arachidonic -->PGE2, prostacyclins & thromboxanes (proinflam)
--lipooxygenase converts arachidonic to other proinflam PG's (leukotrienes)
--COX-1 helps form stomach lining
--COX-2 promotes inflammation
--both are affected by many anti-inflam drugs so these drugs harm stomach lining

toxins stored in fatty tissue include: heavy metals, pesticides, hormones, antibiotics

three types of dietary fat: saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated

SATURATED
--saturated mostly from dairy, red meat, poultry, coconut oil, palm oil, often found in processed food.
--we need some saturated fat to produce cholesterol, which is part of cell membranes and precursor to all steroid hormones (pregnenolong, testosterone, progesterone, cortisol, aldosterone)
--progesterone and pregnenlolone have these fx: antioxidant, antiseizure, antispasm, anticlotting, anticancer, promemory, promyelination, reg female cycle
--solid at room temp
--stable at high temperatures and good for baking
--coconut oil best for high temp cooking, short chain fat is easily more metaboilzed than other saturated fats
--coconut oil stores at room temp for over a year shows no rancidity
--using coconut oil regularly may reduce total cholesterol levels

UNSATURATED = mono or poly
--can convert to trans fatty acid when heated, can't be metabolized then
--smoking hot is too hot
--cook eggs on low heat to avoid changing the fats

MONOUNSATURATED
--monounsaturated is found in canola, olive oil, avocados, "good" fat partly true
--eating a lot of monounsat fat decreases LDL "bad" cholesterol
--canola touted as "healthy" comes from seed of rape plant, is rapeseed oil renamed, is poisonous to many living things, used as insect repellent and was source of chem warfare agent mustard gas, was banned after shown to blister lungs and skin of soudiers.
--"canola" name comes from Canada where lab made oil with lower acid content (Canadian oil low acid)
--Canadian govt paid US FDA lots of $$ to get canola on GRAS list (Generally Recognized as Safe)
--can be damaged by oxidation during heating

POLYUNSATURATED
--can be damaged by oxidation during heating

TRANS FATTY ACIDS


OXIDATIVE DAMAGE TO BODY
--increases atherosclerosis in arteries, increases heart dz

EFA's = essential fatty acids = omega 3 and 6 fatty acids
--essential because we can't make them, we have to get them from diet
--ratio of omega 3: omega 6 was about 1:1 when we were evolving
--modern "SAD" standard american diet has ratios from 1:20 to 1:50
--omega 6 from borage oil, evening primrose, most nuts and seeds have both 6 and 3
--omega 3 from cold water fish (salmon, tuna, sardines, halibut, mackerel, flaxseeds, other seeds, some nuts, some legumes)
--we should consume omega 3's at least 3-4 x/week
--omega 3 deficiency S/Sx: severe allergies, inflam conditions, dry hair and skin, brittle nails, eczema, other skin rashes, bnumps on backs of upper arms (keratosis pilaris)
--EFA's promote healthy nervous system incl brain fx, mood, memory, nerve conduction, improve lipid profiles, antiatherosclerotic, healthy skin, proper immune fx
--supplements of omega 3: flaxseed oil, codliver oil, evening primrose, EFA capsules, fresh ground flaxseeds, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds---do not heat before ingesting!!!

HYDROGENATED OILS
--manufactured to make liquid oils (canola, soybean oil) solid at room temp to give baked goods longer shelf life
--make things cripsy and buttery tasting
--are TRANS, inhibit series 1 and 3 pathways to anti-inflam eicosanoids
--increase levels of inflam in body
--used in ~40,000 food products in US, incl all the big makers of cereals, crackers, pretzels, etc, also found in some low fat "health foods" incl Tiger's Milk bars.
--overaccumulation in body could lead to cancer, etc
--1977 WHO alerted world that hydrogenated fats would cause detrimental health effects in future

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