liveonearth (liveonearth) wrote,
liveonearth
liveonearth

Vocababble: Microbiology, Immunology and Medicine

commensal = a type of symbiosis where two (or more) organisms from different species live in close proximity to one another, in which one member is unaffected by the relationship and the other benefits from it (lots of sources say neither org benefits and none is harmed, but I don't believe those definitions)

endogenous = originating or produced within the organism or one of its parts.

enteric = of or relating to or inside the intestines

emesis = vomiting = the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth

papilloma = a benign epithelial tumor forming a rounded mass = a circumscribed, benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. Syn: papillary tumor

lymphadenopathy = chronic abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes

hemiplegia = paralysis of one side of the body

heat syncope = Dizziness, fainting after exercising in heat. Skin: pale, sweaty, moist, cool. Pulse: weakened, rapid. Body temp normal.

syncope = fainting

TNF = tissue necrosis factor = a proinflammatory cytokine that is produced by white blood cells (monocytes and macrophages); has an antineoplastic effect but causes inflammation (as in rheumatoid arthritis) = Originally described as a tumour inhibiting factor in the blood of animals exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide or Bacille Calmette-Guerin. Preferentially kills tumour cells in vivo and in vitro, causes necrosis of certain transplanted tumours in mice and inhibits experimental metastases. Human Tumour Necrosis factor alpha is a protein of 157 amino acids and has a wide range of pro inflammatory actions. Usually considered a cytokine. Synonym: cachectin.

IL-1 = interleukin-1 = stimulates the production of other factors that activate the immune system = a cytokine, primarily from mononuclear phagocytes, which enhances the proliferation of T helper cells and growth and differentiation of B cells. When secreted in larger quantities it is a mediator of inflammation, entering the bloodstream and causing fever, inducing synthesis of acute phase proteins, and initiating metabolic wasting. There are two distinct forms of IL-1: and , both of which perform the same functions, but represent different proteins.

IL-6 = interleukin-6 = A cytokine derived from macrophages and endothelial cells that increases synthesis and secretion of immunoglobulins by B lymphocytes; also induces acute phase proteins. In hepatocytes, it induces acute-phase reactants. Syn: B cell stimulatory factor 2, interferon-2

acute phase protein = plasma proteins associated with inflammation including C-reactive protein (CRP), mannose-binding protein, serum amyloid P component, 1-antitrypsin, fibrinogen, ceruloplasmin, and complement components C9 and factor B, the concentrations of which increase in response to interleukins 1, 6, and 11 = aka acute-phase reactant = eases (or decreases) by 25% or more during certain inflammatory disorders. The acute-phase proteins include C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein.

CPR = best known acute-phase protein = a plasma protein that rises in the blood with inflammation. The level of CRP in blood plasma can rise as high as 1000-fold with inflammation. Conditions that commonly lead to marked changes in CRP include infection, trauma, surgery, burns, inflammatory conditions, and advanced cancer. Moderate changes occur after strenuous exercise, heatstroke, and childbirth. Small changes in CRP occur after psychological stress and in several psychiatric illnesses. C-reactive protein is a test of value. Marked rises in CRP reflect the presence and intensity of inflammation. An elevation in CRP, however, is not a telltale sign pointing to just one disease.

fomite = any inanimate object (as a towel or money or clothing or dishes or books or toys etc.) or substance that can transmit infectious agents from one person to another = germ = spore = etc

super antigen = An antigen that interacts with the T-cell receptor in a domain outside the antigen recognition site. This interaction induces the activation of larger numbers of T cells than are induced by antigens that are presented in the antigen recognition site leading to the release of numerous cytokines. STREP PYOGENES has exotoxin B which is a protease and superantigen?? "rapidly destroys tissue", "necrotizing fasciitis" seems like there's another bug which activates T cells prematurely and induces their apoptosis

impetigo = one of the most common skin conditions, "a scabby eruption" = a very contagious infection of the skin; common in children; localized redness develops into small blisters that gradually crust and erode = A contagious superficial pyoderma, caused by Staphylococcus aureus and/or group A streptococci, that begins with a superficial flaccid vesicle that ruptures and forms a thick yellowish crust, most commonly occurring in children. Syn: impetigo contagiosa, impetigo vulgaris
Tags: immunology, medicine, vocabulary
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