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My assigned Q:
How does manipulation affect the anatomy and physiology of the body?
How would manipulation to T1-7 help RH's condition?
Also: Report on hydrotherapy and spondylotherapy.

Physical manipulation
--can influence the individual's capacity to heal and repair
--one of the main therapeutic modalities available to a naturopath
--a primary way of finding alignment physically: optimal alignment of the musculoskeletal system (good posture) facilitates optimal organ function.

Manipulation works at many levels, one breakdown:
1) local tissue
2) neurological organization
3) psychophysiological organization
4) energetic, meridians and chakras

local tissue level
--find correct alignment, without which organs, nerves and blood vessels may be impinged
--release toxins
--unbind adhesions etc for smoother fx
--increase circulation to facilitate repair

Neurological reorganization level
--for nerve damage
--Somatic reeducation
--sensory and motor mapping.

Psychophysiological organization level
--our emotions are patterned to certain somatic habits or behaviors
--influence to the body can also influence mood, body image, behavior.

WHY manipulation of the upper thoracic vertebrae
--related to the sympathetic nerve supply to the heart and lungs
--RH's heart rate is so slow

--Priessnitz, icy cold water, douches, walks, cold environs
--Kneip, cool or warm water, dietary constraints, compresses, wraps, vapor baths.
--Cold or hot water influences the blood vessels, nerves and metabolic function. Cold water increases blood pressure and deep circulation, increases metabolism and increases nervous system alertness. A person is healthy enough to bear cold water if their skin turns red when dunked.
--Hot or warm water is used when the patient is unreactive or too infirm for cold water, or especially if their body temperature is low. It lowers the blood pressure, causing a sense of relaxation and tiredness in the patient.

spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis (from Orthopedic massage, whitney lowe)
--separate probs but related
--Spondylolysis is breakdown of vertebral body caused by stress fracture to pars interacrticularis
--Spondylolisthesis is forward slippage of one vertegbra in relation to another, most often the result of bilateral spondylosysis. After the stress fractures have occured on both sides, forward slippage is more likely
--causes Lumbar pain aggravated by strenuous activities esp repetitive flexion and extension or hypter extension of spine. common in adolescent athletic population. Pain diffuse in lower lumbar and upper sacrum.
--TX: controversial. Reduce stress on area with activity modification. rigid braces sometimes. if conservative tx fails then surgery. Soft tissue manipulation: positioning on table important because prone is problematic, partially flexed using bolsters, or side lying is option. Loosening hamstrings.

--based on spinal cord function, especially the autonomic mechanisms, and takes the view that "the spinal cord is not a single contiguous structure but consists of 31 segments or neuromeres, each one of which serves as a little 'reflex brain' and from which point many of the vegetative (involuntary visceral) and even many somatic activities are initiated. These neuromeres serve both as the CNS part of a simple reflex arc and as a focal point for initiating remote synergistic physiologic processes often via the long tracts.
--Supply segments vary depending on authority, individuals' anatomy
--remember: midthoracic spinous process, say T7, is about one level below the T7 neuromere. All five sacral neuromeres are located at the T12–L1 levels
--Deep, repetitive, short-duration percussion upon a neuromere
--rate of 1–3 impulses per second for about 20 seconds with a similar rest interval is used to stimulate a spinal center. Total session duration for excitation is usually 1–2 minutes. Pressure should be held firm to avoid slippage but not be excessive. Prolonged stimulation (over 3 minutes) tends to fatigue neuromere excitability and produces an inhibitory effect. See Tables 2 and 3.
--clinician must know with spinal cord function and visceral innervation

--block and hammer technique used in the 1920s.
--can be applied manually by placing a clenched first over the appropriate spinal region and repeatedly striking it with the other closed fist
--decades ago, electrotherapists used a paraspinal sinusoidal current to apply spondylotherapy
--electric vertical percussion vibrator
--current: pulsating ultrasound has been investigated.
--TX FOR: visceral distress, effect is usually temporary, may be permanent, this has been attributed to breaking a self-perpetuating reflex arc.
--Only two of the cephalad parasympathetics can be directly influenced by spondylotherapy: The vagus nerve at the C1-2 level and the phrenic nerve at C3-4. Vagal stimulation is usually applied to increase gastric activity, intestinal peristalsis, and nasal secretions. Phrenic inhibition is helpful in chronic cough and hiccups.

Table 1. Effects of Induced Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Stimulation (eg, Spondylotherapy
Sympathetic Division Parasympathetic Division
Structure Supply
Effect of Stimulation Supply
Effect of Stimulation
Thyroid gland T1
Increases secretion X
Decreases secretion
Parathyroids T1
Increases secretion X
Decreases secretion
Mucous mem- branes of the head T1–2
Vasoconstriction VII
Salivary glands T1–2
Increases organic substances IX
Increases watery substances
Pupils T1–2
Dilation III
Lacrimal glands T1–3
Vasoconstriction VII
Heart T1–5
Increases rate and force of contraction, dilates coronary arteries X
Decreases rate and force of contraction, contracts coronary arteries
Upper limbs T1–6
Vasoconstriction, sweating, piloerection ? (unknown)
Bronchi and lungs T1– 7
Dilation, vasoconstriction X
Constriction, vasodilation
Sphincter of Oddi T4–8
Constricts X
Gallbladder T4–8
Relaxes muscle, constricts sphincter X
Constricts muscle, relaxes sphincter
Stomach T5–9
Decreases secretion and motility X
Increases secretion and motility
Spleen T6–8
Contracts smooth muscle X
Relaxes smooth muscle
Pancreas T6–9
Decreases secretion X
Increases secretion
Liver T8–10
Increases glycogen to glucose, protein metabolism; vasoconstriction X
Pyloric sphincter T9
Increased tone, contraction X
Adrenals T9–10
Increases secretion X
? (unknown)
Small intestine T9–L1
Slightly decreases peristalsis and secretions; vasoconstriction X
Increases peristalsis and secretions, relaxes sphincters
Kidneys T10–L1
Vasoconstriction, inhibits X
? (unknown)
Prostate T10–L1
Contracts muscle and spermatic vein S2–4
Increases secretion
Fallopian tubes T10–L1
Contracts muscle ? (unknown)
Urinary bladder T12–L2
Constricts sphincter, relaxes wall S2–4
Relaxes sphincter, constricts wall
Lower limbs T12–L2
Vasoconstriction, sweating, piloerection ? (unknown)
Uterus L1
Contracts body S2–4
Relaxes body, contracts cervix
Ileocecal valve L1
Contracts S2–4
Penis, clitoris L1–2
Duct contraction, ejaculation S2–4
Colon and rectum L1–3
Decreased peristalsis S3–5
Increased peristalsis
Anal sphincter L3
Contracts S3–5



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