hypothenar eminence = the pinkie side pad of the hand, which includes the bellies of the muscles that flex the pinkie. Thenar refers to the mound at the base of the thumb.
interoseous spaces = grooves between bones
"signe de journal" = a test of manual dexterity involving tearing a sheet of paper between the thumb and forefinger. A positive test means difficulty tearing paper this way.
gram-positive = (bacteria) retaining a gentian purple stain
TWO KINDS OF CELL WALLS IN PROKARYOTES: LTA AND LPS
lipotechoic acid (LTA) = (from wikipedia): a surface-associated adhesion amphiphile from Gram-positive bacteria and regulator of autolytic wall enzymes (muramidases). It is released from the bacterial cells mainly after bacteriolysis induced by lysozyme, cationic peptides from leucocytes, or beta-lactam antibiotics. ... In animal studies, LTA has induced arthritis, nephritis, uveitis, encephalomyelitis, meningeal inflammation, and periodontal lesions, and also triggered cascades resulting in septic shock and multiorgan failure.
lipopolysaccharide (LPS) = a large molecule consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide (carbohydrate) joined by a covalent bond.
THE INSIDE AND OUTSIDE OF A CELL MEMBRANE ARE DISTINCT, when the cell dies a "flippase" enzyme causes markers on the inside and outside to switch places. This switch informs the macrophages that the cell is dead and they should clean it up. When the cell is alive the OUTSIDE of the membrane is marked with phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, and the INSIDE has phosphatidylserine and ethanolamine.