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Designs for Health Research & Education Blog
Breathe Easier with Bromelain
Posted on Thu, Oct 09, 2014 @ 09:30 AM
Here: http://info.designsforhealth.com/blog/breathe-easier-with-bromelain accessed 10/10/14


FOOD SOURCES
fruit, juice, and stem of plants belonging to the Bromeliaceae botanical family
pineapple most familiar
concentration highest in stem which is byproduct of juice extraction

USES
best known as a digestive aid for the breakdown of dietary proteins
there are more beneficial effects
pulmonary edema, bronchitis, sinusitis
inflammatory airway diseases; asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic airway dz = AAD

MOUSE MODEL
6mg/kg exerted significant anti-inflammatory properties in allergy
DECR: bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) total leukocytes, eosinophils, and interleukins IL-4, IL-12, IL-17, and IFN-α
results confirmed earlier findings (intraperitoneal admin-->decr CD4 T-lymphs)
decr CD4 cells may decr pulmonary eosinophilia and airway hyper responsiveness
mechanism of anti-inflam mbdt incr neut migration, decr in leak adhesion to inflamed site dt 50% reduction in surface molecules used for adhesion
some short term (30 mins) and others as long as 6 hours
mouse model of pulmonary edema: bromelain given IV at 10mg/kg prevented PE in 8/9 mice
action confirmed to be dt protease enzyme activity
pulmonary fibrosis: fibrin deposits on alveoli prevent normal exchange-->SOB on exertion
bromelian could break down the fibrin

might also help allergic rhinitis (AR)
inflammatory disease of the nasal mucous membranes-->sneezing, itching, blockage
“systemic circulation of inflammatory cells allows their infiltration into other tissues where chemoattractant and adhesion molecules already exist. Thus, besides local inflammation, AR also triggers a systemic inflammation, which can in turn augment inflammation in both the upper and lower airways. Consequently, AR is linked to various comorbid conditions,” including asthma, rhinosinusitis, and nasal polyposis. Bromelain’s anti-inflammatory effects could reduce both the local and systemic inflammation that contribute to a variety of lung- and breathing-related conditions.

SAFETY
demonstrated to be safe at high doses
no observable side-effects
up to 12g/day
has been detected undegraded in plasma

SOURCES
http://info.designsforhealth.com/blog/breathe-easier-with-bromelain accessed 10/10/14

Designs for Health Research & Education Blog
Breathe Easier with Bromelain
Posted on Thu, Oct 09, 2014 @ 09:30 AM
Bromelain is a proteolytic enzyme found primarily in the fruit, juice, and stem of plants belonging to the Bromeliaceae botanical family, with pineapple being the one most familiar to us. Its concentration is highest in the pineapple stem, which is typically a waste byproduct of pineapple juice extraction. Bromelain seems to be best known as a digestive aid for the breakdown of dietary proteins, but the beneficial effects of bromelain aren’t limited to this property. This enzyme exerts interesting effects in the lungs, suggesting it could be a helpful adjunct used in pulmonary edema, bronchitis, sinusitis, and conditions related to inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma.
In a mouse model of allergic airway disease (AAD), oral supplementation with bromelain at 6mg/kg exerted anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by significant reduction of inflammatory markers compared to placebo. Reduced inflammatory markers and compounds included bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) total leukocytes, eosinophils, and interleukins IL-4, IL-12, IL-17, and IFN-α. These results confirmed earlier findings that employed intraperitoneal bromelain supplementation, which led to attenuated development of AAD and reduced levels of CD4+ T-lymphocytes. This is significant because researchers have concluded that “depletion of CD4+ T cells in the animal model prevents pulmonary eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness.” 
In vitro and in vivo studies suggest the anti-inflammatory properties of bromelain may be due to the enzyme’s influence on the migration of neutrophils to sites of inflammation. In human neutrophils in vitro, bromelain inhibited IL-8-stimulated migration of neutrophils. The predominant effect of bromelain on leukocytes seems to be a reduction in firm adhesion to the site of inflammation via removing cell surface molecules required for adhesion. These adhesion molecules were reduced by almost 50% in bromelain-treated mice, compared to those treated with saline. The effects are both short and long-term; bromelain exerts different inhibitory effects on specific adhesion molecules, with expression of some of them returning to normal within 30 minutes of treatment, while others remained suppressed for up to six hours.
A mouse model of pulmonary edema showed that bioactive bromelain given intravenously at a dose of 10mg/kg prevented this dangerous condition in eight out of nine mice. The opposite held true for a separate experimental group treated with bromelain whose proteolytic activity had been deactivated. This group developed pulmonary edema to the tune of eight out of nine mice, leading the authors to conclude that the protective effects of bromelain in this case are connected to its proteolytic properties. 
It’s logical that the beneficial effects of bromelain on lung function are a result of its protease activity. Using pulmonary fibrosis as an example, thick fibrin deposits on the alveoli prevent normal exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen, leading to shortness of breath upon exertion. If bromelain is successful in degrading some of the fibrin, lung capacity and ease of breathing could be improved. 
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is another condition for which bromelain might be a helpful addition to conventional treatment. AR is essentially an inflammatory disease of the nasal mucous membranes, which results in sneezing, nasal itching, and blockage of the nasal passages. As study authors point out, “systemic circulation of inflammatory cells allows their infiltration into other tissues where chemoattractant and adhesion molecules already exist. Thus, besides local inflammation, AR also triggers a systemic inflammation, which can in turn augment inflammation in both the upper and lower airways. Consequently, AR is linked to various comorbid conditions,” including asthma, rhinosinusitis, and nasal polyposis. Bromelain’s anti-inflammatory effects could reduce both the local and systemic inflammation that contribute to a variety of lung- and breathing-related conditions.
As a supplement, bromelain has been demonstrated to be safe at high doses, with no observable side-effects, even up to 12g/day. It has been detected undegraded in plasma, suggesting it transits the digestive tract intact, retaining its biological activity throughout the body. These factors make bromelain an intriguing option for patients with difficult-to-treat conditions that affect breathing.

Comments

( 1 comment — Leave a comment )
bobby1933
Oct. 11th, 2014 02:09 am (UTC)
Thank you. I will ask Dianne to talk to her pulmonologist about this.
( 1 comment — Leave a comment )

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