The harsher the physical (or emotional) punishment was, the higher the odds of an axis I or II diagnosis. Axis I diagnoses include major depression, dysthymia, mania, mood disorders, phobias, anxiety disorders, and drug and alcohol abuse or dependence. Axis II diagnoses include several individual personality disorders and cluster A and B disorder diagnoses. The researchers concluded that 2-7% of all mental disease is attributable to childhood abuse.
AXIS 1 CORRELATIONS
Major depression (aOR, 1.41)
Dysthymia (aOR, 1.70)
Mania (aOR, 1.93)
Any mood disorder (aOR, 1.49)
Specific phobia (aOR, 1.31)
General anxiety disorder (aOR, 1.50)
Any anxiety disorder (aOR, 1.36)
Any alcohol abuse or dependence (aOR, 1.59)
Any drug dependence or abuse (aOR, 1.53)
***PAFs for Axis I disorders were 2.1% (any anxiety disorder), 2.4% (major depression), 2.8% (any mood disorder), 3.0% (any drug dependence or abuse), 3.4% (any alcohol abuse or dependence), and 5.2% (mania).
Schizoid (aOR, 1.80)
Schizotypal (aOR, 2.31)
Any cluster A (paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal personality disorders; aOR, 1.74)
Antisocial (aOR, 1.98)
Borderline (aOR, 1.82)
Narcissistic (aOR, 1.84)
Any cluster B (antisocial, histrionic, borderline, and narcissistic disorders; aOR, 1.85)
Obsessive-compulsive (aOR, 1.60)
Any cluster C (avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive disorders; aOR, 1.51)
***Axis II disorders not linked with physical punishment were paranoid, histrionic, and avoidant personality disorders.
***PAFs for Axis II disorders were 4.2% (any cluster A disorder), 4.6% (borderline), 4.7% (narcissistic), 4.8% (any cluster B), 5.5% (antisocial), and 7.2% (schizotypal).
Study limitations were cross-sectional design and retrospective recall of childhood punishment and parental conditions.