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http://www.jarrow.com/product/188/Neuro_Optimizer consider this product via Vitacost



MY QUESTIONS
what are food sources of citicholine? can we get it from eating brains?
there is choline in eggs and liver. is there citicholine?? how much??
how easily does choline convert to citicholine?
can we support the conversion?
can we by pass this supp using diet???

CHOLINE DEFICIENCY is common (not citicholine, mind you!)
suspect if: fatty liver, hemorrhagic kidney necrosis, infertility, growth impairment, bone abnormalities, hypertension, cancer, atherosclerosis, glaucoma, neuro dz: Alzheimer's,. bipolar. LABS: incr ALT, incr HCYS


NEW STUDY
n = 60 healthy women age 40-60, no axis 1 or 2 disorders, no cog deficits besides normal aging
3 groups of 20: low dose 250mg, high dose 500mg, placebo
28days
evaluated c Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II)
measures attention functioning
improved attention on low or high dose:
-fewer commission and omission errors on the CPT-II
-fewer errors in response to nontarget stimuli
250mg-->sim results to 500mg dose
improvement "quite noteworthy": P value = .02 for 250mg and .03 for 500mg
pharmaceutical doses as high as 4000 mg have been evaluated

could it help with cognitive decline of aging, or ADD of mental illness?? huge potential market
study was funded by Kyowa Hakko Bio Co., Ltd = manufacturers of the citicoline used in study
Erin McGlade, led study, PhD, U of Utah Brain Institute, SLC

CITICHOLINE
AKA: INN, cytidine diphosphate-choline (CDP-Choline), cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine
psychostimulant/nootropic = smart drug, memory enhancer, and cognitive enhancer
intermediate in the generation of phosphatidylcholine from choline
found in the brain and liver
one of few pyrimidines available as a nutritional supplement in US/Canada
sold in 70+ countries as: Ceraxon, Cognizin, NeurAxon, Somazina
few side effects

MECHANISMS!!!
increases dopamine and muscarinic receptor densities in mice (don't know about humans yet)
may ameliorate memory impairment dt envir conditions (rat study, prevents hippocampal decline)
pyrimidines-->incr brain phospholipid synthesis-->efficaceous for tx of stroke and head trauma
pyrimidines-->incr catecholamine synthesis-->mb reason for better attention
elevates ACTH independent of CRH levels
amplifies release of LH, FSH, GH and TSH dt incr hypothal releasing factors

mb CI in PCOS, DM2, major depression
PCOS: enough ACTH and cortisol already: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306453008003247

MOUSE STUDY ON RECEPTOR DENSITIES
7mo of CDP choline in feed-->incr binding at dopamine D2 and muscarinic receptors in striata
dosing, either 100 or 500 mg kg-1 added per day
mice killed at 19mo and brains evaluated
DOPAMINE RECEPTORS
100mg/kg-->11% incr dopamine receptor density
500mg/kg-->28% incr in dopamine receptor density
control animals-->28% decrease in the receptor density
no change in receptor affinity
MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS
aged animals-->14% decr in muscarinic
low dose-->6% incr in receptors
high dose-->17% incr
MEMBRANE FLUIDITY
slight increase in brain membrane fluidity
similar at both doses

CHOLINE
imp for: cell memb, cholinergic neurotrans, and methyl group source
metabolizes to betaine (trimethylglycine) in S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) synthesis pathway
water-soluble essential nutrient
usu grouped within the B-complex vitamin
generally refers to quaternary ammonium salts containing the N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation
this cation in head groups of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin (in cell membranes)
precursor molecule for acetylcholine
only 2% of postmenopausal women consume the RDI
need more during pregnancy for developing neuro system
more organ dysfx post meno in women who are deficient: liver or muscle damage
prevents fatty liver: included in lipotropic formulas
increases synthesis and release of acetylcholine
important source of labile methyl groups-->decr HCYS-->anti-inflammatory action
works for anxiety but not for depression

CHOLINE DEFICIENCY
adequate intake = 425mg/d for adult women, more if preg, 5050mg for men
sx of def: fatty liver, hemorrhagic kidney necrosis, infertility, growth impairment, bone abnormalities, hypertension, cancer (initiates and promotes), incr HCYS, atherosclerosis, neuro dz: alzheimer's, bipolar, glaucoma
LAB: incr ALT
at risk of def: veg, vegan, endurance athletes, hard drinkers, people who don't like eggs
average intake of choline is below the Adequate Intake (AI)
2003-4 NHANES analysis showed that in US, older kids, men, women and preg, only 10% beat the AI

FOOD SOURCES OF CHOLINE
egg yolks, fatty meats, breast milk
beef liver tops the chart
soy lecithin and wheat germ good sources (lecithin-->decr CV dz)
cod, chicken, tofu, milk
quinoa, amaranth, nuts
kidney beans, spinach, cauliflower & other crucifers

WHAT I TAKE FROM ALL THIS
keep eating eggs
keep prescribing lecithin with even more indications!

SOURCES
http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/745068?src=mpnews&spon=12
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citicoline
rat study: http://learnmem.cshlp.org/content/12/1/39
Changes in brain striatum dopamine and acetylcholine receptors induced by chronic CDP-choline treatment of aging mice: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1908237/?tool=pmcentrez
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Choline

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