^ Berk, Michael; Copolov, David; Dean, Olivia; Lu, Kristy; Jeavons, Sue; Schapkaitz, Ian; Anderson-Hunt, Murray; Judd, Fiona et al. (2008). "N-Acetyl Cysteine as a Glutathione Precursor for Schizophrenia—A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial". Biological Psychiatry 64 (5): 361–8. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.03.004. PMID 18436195.
Intent-to-treat analysis revealed that subjects treated with NAC improved more than placebo-treated subjects over the study period in PANSS total [−5.97 (−10.44, −1.51), p = .009], PANSS negative [mean difference −1.83 (95% confidence interval: −3.33, −.32), p = .018], and PANSS general [−2.79 (−5.38, −.20), p = .035], CGI-Severity (CGI-S) [−.26 (−.44, −.08), p = .004], and CGI-Improvement (CGI-I) [−.22 (−.41, −.03), p = .025] scores. No significant change on the PANSS positive subscale was seen. N-acetyl cysteine treatment also was associated with an improvement in akathisia (p = .022). Effect sizes at end point were consistent with moderate benefits. (akathisia = RLS)
^ Berk, M; Copolov, D; Dean, O; Lu, K; Jeavons, S; Schapkaitz, I; Andersonhunt, M; Bush, A (2008). "N-Acetyl Cysteine for Depressive Symptoms in Bipolar Disorder—A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial". Biological Psychiatry 64 (6): 468–75. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.04.022. PMID 18534556.
NAC treatment caused a significant improvement on the MADRS (least squares mean difference [95% confidence interval]: −8.05 [−13.16, −2.95], p = .002) and most secondary scales at end point. Benefit was evident by 8 weeks on the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale and at 20 weeks on the MADRS. Improvements were lost after washout. There was no effect of NAC on time to a mood episode (log-rank test: p = .968) and no significant between-group differences in adverse events. Effect sizes at end point were medium to high for improvements in MADRS and 9 of the 12 secondary readouts.