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opioid analgesic use and abuse on the rise
types: codeine, hydrocodone, meperidine, oxycodone, propoxyphene, morphine, tramadol, methadone, hydromorphone, fentanyl, pentazocine

therapeutic opioid use reported by 2.6% of 17,449 case mothers
2.0% of 6701 control mothers
mc: codeine (34.5%), hydrocodone (34.5%), oxycodone (14.4%), meperidine (12.9%)

time window studied: 1 mo before conception to 3 mo after

2-3x risk of infant defects:
conoventricular septal defects = opening btw ventricles not assoc w/ other congenital CV defect
atrioventricular septal defects = hole in upper vent septum assoc w/ atrial septal defect, incr lung circ
hypoplastic left heart syndrome = bad prognosis, rare, incomplete development of mitral valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, and/or aorta
spina bifida = embryonic neural tube not closed
gastroschisis = abd wall defect, hole near umbilicus thru which intestines and mb other organs develop outside, aka paraomphalocele, laparoschisis, abdominoschisis, abdominal hernia

SOURCE
medscape: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/738236?src=mpnews&spon=12

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